When Catholics Saved Protestants From Muslims

By Casey Chalk Published on October 6, 2018

Two generations after Luther initiated the Protestant Reformation, a Catholic armada saved Protestantism. In 1571, a fleet of the Catholic “Holy League” defeated an aggressive, awe-inspiring Muslim invasion. That invasion would likely have captured not only Catholic southern Europe, but the lands of Protestantism as well.

A Growing Crisis in Europe’s South

After several hundred years of warfare, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople, in 1453. Soon, they conquered the Byzantine Empire. It did not take long for this Muslim empire to look west and north.

Their sultan, Suleiman, and his son, Selim, built an impressive navy and began capturing various Christian islands throughout the Mediterranean. Their army conquered Hungary and threatened Vienna. Christians living along the coasts of southern Spain and Italy became frequent targets of Muslim pirates like Barbarossa and his brother, Dragut Rey. Entire Christian towns and villages on the coast were sacked. Inhabitants were slaughtered. Or taken aboard galleys bound for slave markets in North Africa.

For years, the pope’s appeals to Christendom to unite and defeat this growing threat went largely unheeded. There were a few successes: a small Christian garrison at Malta in 1565 repelled an assault by the largest navy ever assembled. In 1570, the Turks got their revenge by conquering Venetian-held Cyprus. They inflicted unparalleled barbarity on the Christian populace there.

That event terrified and energized the Venetians. It also unified a number of Christian powers. The challenge brought togehter Venice, Spain, the Papal States, Genoa, the Knights of Malta, and a few smaller Italian states and knightly orders. Europe’s Catholic south decided to fight for the survival of Christian Europe.

The Role of Faith

The “Holy League” fought back not only for religious reasons, of course. They fought for political and economic reasons as well. But the role of Christian faith in the battle was central.

On October 7, 1571, the Catholic navy sailed from Sicily. Pope Pius V, well aware that the Christian forces were outnumbered, called all Europe to pray the Rosary for victory. He himself led a rosary procession through Rome. The banners of the Catholic fleet under its admiral John Australia bore all manner of religious iconography, and Masses and prayers were said on board the ships as battle neared.

Though having more than sixty fewer ships and more than ten thousand fewer men, the fleet of the “Holy League” triumphed against the Ottoman navy. Historians credit much of the Christians’ success to their numerical superiority in guns and cannon as well as the superior quality of the Spanish infantry aboard many of the ships.

Not only did the battle result in the near-destruction of the entire Ottoman power, weakening the empire’s stranglehold on the Mediterranean. The Christian fleet freed more than 12,000 Christian slaves who had been forced to work in the Turkish galleys.

Prayer and Politics

Those without the eyes of faith will see in the story of Lepanto only political maneuvering, economic calculations, and the desire for fame and glory. Surely, as with all human events, there was plenty of this. Yet intimately tethered to these secular concerns was a true and abiding Christian faith on the part of the fleet of the “Holy League,” and its creator and sponsor, Pope Pius V.

If not for that religious fervor and desire to protect Christendom, victory may very well have evaded the Catholic navy that day in 1571. Indeed, it is difficult to make sense of the high expenditures and risks to personal safety taken by the Catholic states apart from the reality of their religious faith.

For the sake of His people, both Catholics and Protestants, God responded to the energetic prayers offered across Europe that day. Despite the flaws of those Christian nations, God acted through them to save Christian Europe, and 12,000 brutalized Christian slaves, besides.

At least one Protestant ruler joined the pope in thanking God for deliverance. The news reached England about a month later. Queen Elizabeth I ordered bonfires to be lit across England and prayers said in every church to thank God for deliverance. 

Note: Because of an editing mistake, this was first credited not to Casey Chalk but to David Mills. Casey Chalk is a graduate student in theology at the Notre Dame Graduate School of Theology at Christendom College.

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  • James Blazsik

    Protestants are wholly ignorant of history that displays the greatness of the Catholic Church even when it benefits them. With the many fallacies of Martin Luther, one of them is his support of the Muslims against the Catholic Church.

    • David MacKenzie

      There’s a lot of ignorance going around in ALL directions these days.

    • ARB

      The Catholic “church” was indeed a great worldly empire. It wasn’t a great church.

      • James Blazsik

        As I said, a lot of protestants don’t know church history. You are displaying that fact now.

      • It is the Mystical Body of Christ and the Bride of Christ.

        • Cody

          Thats all true believers.

  • Mela

    My apologies, but I will never embrace the doctrines of the Roman Catholic church despite the fact that I love the people of that faith. There are numerous other religious institutions whose doctrines I will never embrace despite the fact I have friends of those various ‘faiths’. I most closely aline with the teachings of the Jewish people… my Christian roots. Salvation is of the Jews… Jesus was and is a Jew in a glorified body. He is the one and only Redeemer. He is the Immaculate Conception. He is my High Priest and Mediator to Whom I confess my sins. Many from all walks of various faiths have done great things just because they knew it was the right thing to do. Thankfully people still have a conscience.

    • James Blazsik

      The Immaculate Conception refers to the Blessed Virgin Mary.
      The Trinity, the deity of Christ, His atoning sacrifice, the Resurrection, and the Scriptures are all from the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church is the fulfillment of the Jewish conception of the people of God.

      • GLT

        “The Trinity, the deity of Christ, His atoning sacrifice, the Resurrection, and the Scriptures are all from the Catholic Church.”

        Sorry, James, these all come from God, not the Catholic Church.

        • Andrew73

          The Catholic Church was established by Christ. All Protestant churches were established by men.

          • GLT

            The Church was established by Christ, what is commonly called the Catholic Church is as much the work of men as is any Protestant church, maybe more so.

          • James Blazsik

            You are wrong. It’s the Church established by Christ from the very beginning.
            The protestant church is founded by men. Martin Luther, the founder of protestantism, wrote the “Jews and their Lies”, where he called for the persecution of the Jews and the burning down of synagogues.

          • Andrew73

            When you refer to the Church what are you referring to? All of the tens of thousands of denominations as a collective or one in particular? Only one can be the True Church because truth cannot contradict itself.

        • James Blazsik

          Of course, but God the Holy Spirit worked within the Catholic Church to answer the heresies that arouse concerning the Trinity, nature of Christ, canon of Scripture, etc. The Bible didn’t just fall from Heaven with a doctrinal Statement.
          The Bible says in 1 Tim 3:15 that the Church is the pillar and foundation of the truth. Jesus lives in His Church and breathes in it through His Holy Spirit.

          • GLT

            God the Holy Spirit worked within the whole Church, not only what is now designated the Catholic Church.

            “Jesus lives in His Church and breathes in it through His Holy Spirit.”

            Absolutely, but the Church is more than what is designated as the Catholic Church.

          • James Blazsik

            Yes, but the doctrine of the Trinity, deity of Christ, canon of Scripture, etc. are all from the Catholic Church, which is from the beginning.

          • GLT

            They are all revelations from God, James, not the Catholic Church. It appears you worship your church more than you worship God. I sincerely hope my perceptions are wrong.

          • James Blazsik

            You are not getting it. God revealed the truth to the Church, which was the Catholic Church. The Holy Spirit works within the Body of Christ. Again, for whatever the reason you can’t see it. A lot of what you believe is Catholic, and God revealed that to the Catholic Church. I don’t know what’s so hard.
            The Catholic Church is the original Church. Everyone came after that.

          • GLT

            “You are not getting it.”

            No, James, you are the one not getting it. Of course God revealed the truth to the Church. Your mistake is you erroneously believe the Catholic Church IS the church. What we call the Catholic Church is only a part of the universal church. It is not the whole church, it is not the only church and it is not the sole source of truth and salvation. The Body of Christ is not exclusively found within your branch of the church.

            “The Catholic Church is the original Church.”

            Of course the Universal Church is the original church. You seem to forget, James, catholic only means universal. There is only one true church and the Catholic Church is only a part of it, it is not the whole of it.

          • James Blazsik

            You still don’t get it. The Catholic Church is the Church founded by Christ. All other churches are founded by men.
            1Tim 3:15 says that the Church is the pillar and foundation of the truth. Christ established the papacy in Matt 16. The creeds were birthed in the Catholic Church. The sacraments existed within the Catholic Church. Catholics obey the command to eat His Body and drink His Blood.
            Of course the Church exists outside of the Catholic Church. But the Catholic Church is the root, the standard.

          • Cody

            The first christians were called the way not catholic.

          • James Blazsik

            They weren’t called the way.
            The Catholic Church is the Church founded by Christ, everyone comes after it.
            Are you a baptist?

          • Cody

            No

          • GLT

            “The Catholic Church is the Church founded by Christ.”

            Yes, and for the umteenth time Catholic only means universal and the true universal church refers to much more than what is generally assumed when referring to the Catholic Church.

            Man established the Papacy.

            “But the Catholic Church is the root, the standard.”

            The Church is built on Christ as is clearly taught in Matthew 16 when Christ refers to Peter’s answer to his question as to whom Peter believed he was. Peter responded that Christ was the Messiah, the son of the living God. That is the rock upon which the Church is built, not Peter.

          • James Blazsik

            Of course “Catholic” means universal. It just happens to the name of the Church Christ founded.
            Man didn’t establish the papacy, there is evidence of it in the 1st century with the successors of St. Peter. The point: it actually happened.
            Revelation 21:14 says that the Apostles are the foundation of the Church. Christ is the cornerstone.
            Read Matthew 16 – Peter is given the responsibility of binding and loosing. In other words, teaching authority.

          • GLT

            “It just happens to the name of the Church Christ founded.”

            It just happens to be the name applied to your particular branch of the church, nothing more.

            “In other words, teaching authority.”

            All the apostles were given teaching authority, not only Peter. Peter himself never put himself or saw himself as superior to the other apostles. That you believe he did is pure conjecture and as such, without foundation.

          • Cody

            Right on.

          • Cody

            Exactly.

          • Cody

            You need to study the Bible.

          • James Blazsik

            I study Scripture. I’ve read the Bible 11 times, the New Testament 33 times.
            How many times have you read the Bible?

          • Cody

            17

          • James Blazsik

            Are you a baptist?

          • Cody

            No I am not a baptist. You like the popes so much did you know Karol Wojtyla who later became pope John Paul II was the man who sold the Germans the cyanide gas which killed 6 million Jews then fearing for his life he joined the Catholic Church and later became a priest then a bishop and finally the pope,John Paul II, yes he did repent but only for the actions of church not for his actions, which can only mean he is not forgiven, hopefully he did repent but there is no record of him doing so.

          • Cody

            you seem to think so highly of the popes, well Karol Wojtyla who was pope John Paul II was the very man who sold the cyanide gas to the Germans meaning Hitler to kill 6 million Jews, then fearing for his life he joined the Catholic Church later to become a priest, then a bishop and then pope John Paul II.

          • James Blazsik

            The only thing that can be said is either you know that you are lying or that you are stupid.

          • Cody

            Well I might be stupid, but I am not deceived, my faith is in the Lord Jesus Christ.

          • James Blazsik

            You say a lot of things that make me believe you are deceived. I hope your faith is true – you say a lot of things the aren’t true.

          • Cody

            But you don’t know what the church is. the church is all true believers, not some religion led my a mere man.

          • James Blazsik

            The Catholic Church was founded by Christ. He established the papacy in Matt 16. Aii other church groups were founded by man.

        • Cody

          Amen

      • Mela

        Respectfully, Jesus Christ (Yeshua Hamashiach} is THEE author and ‘fulfiller’ of His Word.

        • James Blazsik

          You use thee incorrectly.
          But Jesus said He would send His Holy Spirit to teach us all things. THe Bible says in 1Tim. 3:15 that the Church is the pillar and foundation of the truth. The Holy Spirit works within His Church.

        • Christ is God, not a jewish political figure you poor troll.

    • Andrew73

      Ever read or know what is in the Talmud?

      • Mela

        Only excerpts. The Talmud is so vast and complex… my little pea brain does not comprehend much of the endless civil and ceremonial laws. I’m doing what I can to understand the Jewishness of my faith in following the Christ. I don’t want to severed from the root understanding of the Word.

        • Andrew73

          I suggest you read the excerpts referring to Christ and then you will understand the contempt the Jews have for Him.

        • The Old Covenant is fulfilled and abolished.

          The Old Covenant and the New&Eternal Covenant in the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostloc Church are very similar.

          This is because the Catholic Church is the perfection of Isreal.

        • Kathy

          I’ve learned as well that as Christians, it is important and very beneficial for us to study and understand our Jewish roots as you are doing. Jesus was an observant Jew, as were all of the apostles, including Paul…Jesus came for the Jew first, then the Gentile. Romans 11 explains the Jew’s unbelief and that we grafted-in Gentiles are not to boast about replacing them because we have not, as you know.

          If you are not familiar with the Messianic Jewish faith (Jewish believers in Yeshua), it will help you in your understanding. Jewish and Gentile believers were never supposed to be separated…we were to be one in the Body of Christ.

          The Talmud is referenced only by traditional Jews, the Messianics refer to the Bible only, both the Old and New Covenants.

          • Andrew73

            How can you be a ‘Jewish believer in Yeshua’? Does this not make you a Christian? He is either the Messiah or he is not. You can’t have a foot in both camps. Are these so called ‘Jewish believers in Yeshua’ waiting for the real Messiah or one who is more to their liking?

          • Kathy

            Understand your reluctance…many Christians are not familiar with the MJ’s. I was not until just a few years ago. I attended a Messianic synagogue and was given an extensive timeline on their history.

            Their Messiah is ours, the One and only Yeshua ,His given Hebrew name meaning “salvation”. Jesus is the Greek translation. There is no need for them to convert to Christianity. Everything they believe and practice is completely biblical (both Old and New Covenant)…the Talmud is rabbinical teachings of the traditional Jewish faith, which do not align with the MJ faith.

            Which Christian tradition would they need to convert to? They are the strictest “by the book (Bible)” people I know.

    • Christ is God, not a jew.

      Immaculate Conception refers to Mary being born without sin so she could be the new Ark, not Christ.

      • Cody

        Your theology is once again highly flawed.

  • Doug

    The Pope never considered Protestants part of Christendom so this article is a real stretch for me.

    • James Blazsik

      If it wasn’t for the Catholic Church the protestant church would be engulfed by the muslims. All the while Martin Luther supported the muslims.

      • Doug

        I don’t know why my comment made you angry as I was just stating a fact. The Pope saw Protestants as heretics, not fellow believers. If Protestants benefited from the victory over Islam it was short term — consider the St. Bartholomew’s day massacre, the failed Spanish Armada, etc. Protestantism survived in Northern Europe because its people took up arms.

        In fairness to Martin Luther, he supported a secular war against the Ottoman Empire, not a religious war. He also saw Islam as a scourge of the corrupt west (similar to God’s use of Babylon and Persia to punish ancient Israel).

        • James Blazsik

          I wasn’t angry. Study the Battle of Lepanto, The victory saved the West.
          Martin Luther became a madman. Read Luther’s, “The Jews and Their Lies”. He advocated persecuting the Jews and the burning down of synagogues. He encouraged the death of 100,000 peasants. The founding of protestantism was scandalous.

          • Cody

            You should read up on the history of the Catholic Church and the millions murdered by the Popes all in the name of religion.

          • James Blazsik

            I know the history of the Catholic Church. You don’t know what you are talking about. It’s false. Try to prove you’re accusation.
            Read, “The Jews and Their Lies”, by Martin Luther. He advocated persecution of the Jews and the burning down of Synagogues. He encouraged the death of a 100,000 peasants.
            Slavery disappeared in Catholic Europe. It reappeared in protestant England.
            It’s the protestant reformation that lead to secularization and then atheism.

          • Cody

            You don’t know what your talking about Hitler was a Catholic and butchered millions of jews, the Popes through out history have killed hundreds of thousands all in the name of religion, and are leading millions down the wide road which leads to eternal damnation with their false gospel, works and sacraments will not get you to Heaven the Priest cannot forgive your sin infant baptism never did and still doesn’t save anyone, and the list goes on and on.

          • hitler was a devil worshipper who hated his Catholic mother because she forgave his drunken Jewish father. sold his soul in the 20’s.

            Pope Pius XI and Pope Pius XII were the only true and consistent opponent of the axis.

            Penance is one of the 7 Sacraments.

            Baptism is the Major Exorcism and grants you your Guardian Angel.

          • Cody

            Leave me alone your not worth talking to, you will find out on judgement day.

          • Projection won’t save you

          • James Blazsik

            You are literally out of your mind. Hitler was born a Catholic but he rejected his Christian faith. He later killed a lot of Catholics and Catholic Clergy, especially in Poland. Duh.
            Prove that Popes killed 100,000s of people. PROVE IT. This is idiocy.
            Did you read Martin Luther’s “The Jews and their Lies’?
            As for the sacraments – you have no idea what they are.They are as Biblical as you get.
            Shame on your ignorance.

          • GLT

            “You don’t know what your talking about Hitler was a Catholic,…”

            There is an old adage about being born in a barn does not make you a horse. Hitler may have had family connections to the Catholic Church but he was in no way a Christian, Catholic or otherwise. As for the actions of some Popes over the centuries, they alone are responsible for their deeds not the Church itself. That they acted in a manner contrary to Church teaching does not put the Church at fault.

          • Cody

            Pope piousXII

        • The prots swore oaths to the caliphate. The Spanish distracted the English so they could not send their entire navy to help the mohammedans out at Lepanto.

      • GLT

        “If it wasn’t for the Catholic Church the protestant church would be engulfed by the muslims.”

        That is something we will never know. It is pure conjecture to talk about what would have happened had history been other than what it is. Also, you must remember as far as the Muslims were concerned there was no distinction between Protestants and Catholics, everyone was to be subservient to Islam.. The Catholics, while saving the Protestants, were saving themselves as well.

  • The comments of some Protestants around here are absolutely astonishing. But heck, I’ll just bite my tongue.

    • Sumerian King

      As a Protestant myself, sadly, I agree with you. It pains me to see the constant division and bickering and argumentation across Christendom, whether it be Protestant, Catholic, or Orthodox. I’ve always held to the belief that both Protestants and Catholics have a warped view of one-another. God willing, one day we will stand together as one Body, regardless of denomination. I apologize on behalf of my fellow Protestants for any hurtful or fallacious comments. God bless you, brother.

      • Oh don’t apologize. It’s not your fault. Yes that’s a good way to look at it, “a warped view of each other.” I think it’s a particular denominational family of protestants that are mind-boggling ignorant of the history of Christianity. I find that Anglicans and Lutherans pretty much understand Catholics, It’s when you get to the reformed and congregationalist denominations that they start believing all sorts of weird stuff about Catholics. Today’s Evangelicals and Baptists come out of that lineage.

        When you think about it, the breath of diversity between Protestant denominations is huge. From the Anglicans, which are nearly Catholic, down to the Baptists, down to the Churches of Christ, and further down to the Amish and Mennonites, you would think that most Protestants would point fingers at each other rather than the Catholic Church. Certainly there are more Protestants like the Catholics (Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists) than like the Baptists and Amish. But such is having a “common enemy.”

        Yes I do hope for unity one day. We have much to learn from each other and much to gain from unity. Peace in Christ. 🙂

        • Sumerian King

          Yes, I believe the understanding of basic Christian history (or any history, for that matter) plays a huge role, perhaps even more-so than denomination, in Church in-fighting and misunderstanding. Typically, it seems Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians are much better versed in Christian history than Protestants, especially modern Evangelicals. Correct me if I’m wrong, but I think this stems from the fact that Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians have a much stronger emphasis on the teachings of the post-Apostolic early Church Fathers, whereas in the Protestant realm, our understanding of the early church basically cuts off with the Acts of the Apostles. It’s unfortunate, but often true (although, there certainly are exceptions to this rule).

          I hail from a non-denominational charismatic/Pentecostal type background (who, ironically, are denounced by many mainline Protestants just like the RCC is), and the reason I’m much more sympathetic towards the RCC/Eastern Orthodox is because of my study and understanding of Church history. For instance, when practically the entire Eastern Church fell to the heresy of Arianism in the 3 & 4th centuries, it was the RCC who doggedly held on to the true, correct, orthodox understanding of Scripture, and refused to cave in, which was eventually codified at Nicaea in 325. After reading this, I had a whole new appreciation of Catholics. That’s why the study of history is so important: it allows us to see the good, and not only the bad, of what our Christian brother and sisters have accomplished throughout the centuries. As you said, we have much to learn from each other!

          • This is because the Catholic Church is the Church.

          • Sumerian King

            Well, the Catholic Church is A church, and there are undoubtedly many great Catholics throughout history, ones whose writings have personally inspired my walk with the Lord. However, when you consider how God has moved through the Protestants as well (regardless of the denomination), you begin to see that despite the man-made divisions, the Lord is working through his people for His Kingdom purpose. Spiritually speaking, it seems you’re just as close-minded as Protestants who wholesale write-off Catholics as “heretical” (which, personally, I disagree with). BOTH sides are guilty, my friend.

          • No, the Catholic Church is THE Church.

            The prots are a government based heresy.

          • Sumerian King

            Okay, what is your historical and theological evidence for the Catholic Church being “THE Church”?

          • The existence of the Church and its 2000 year history. It is self evident, and the only way to escape it is to claim superiority of intellectual cowardice by saying “I don’t want to look so it isn’t there.”

          • Sumerian King

            I understand this, but there are other branches of the Church that go back just as far, such as the Egyptian (Coptic), Syrian Orthodox, etc. Listen, never once have I bad-mouthed the Catholic Church, or tried to undermine it. All I’m saying is you shouldn’t be so seemingly hostile to your fellow Christians, regardless of their denomination, because they aren’t part of the RCC. Just as history many times vindicates the great things God has used the Catholic Church to do, the same holds true for Protestants. For instance, the great 19th Century missions boom, especially in Asia, was spearheaded by mainline Protestant denominations. Likewise, the great explosion of global missions, evangelism, and revival sweeping Africa, Asia, and Latin America is really a result of God using the charismatic/Pentecostal movement. And consider the Chinese theologian Watchman Nee. You can’t really classify him according to denomination, because he thought denominations were sinful!

            Personally, I’ve studied in-depth the long history of the Church from all sides, and maybe that’s why I have a unique perspective. And based on my reasoning above, I think I’m quite intellectually honest. You don’t seem like an individual who’s open to reason, or even an open-minded dialogue, so I’ll just cut this conversation short since it isn’t going anywhere. You’re obviously quite passionate about your Catholic faith, which is great. Again, I’m not trying to undermine your faith, or drag you away from it. All I’m simply saying is God has a Kingdom goal in mine, and He has a set timeline, and regardless of division and denomination, He’ll use whoever and whatever He needs to to move that purpose forward, regardless of our man-made divisions.

          • There is only one Church. schismatics are just one step below heretical groups.

            It really seems your problem is that you cannot parse between truth an error. As in, you hear two things and then take them both as true because you do not know enough to declare what is erroneous and what isn’t. Or more accurately, you give Truth and error equal footing and therefore deny Truth on the grounds that there is only one Truth and everything else is error.

            As Chesterton said, this is the virtue of Humility that has been separated from the Church and therefore gone mad. As Chesterton also said, virtue that has become unfounded and therefore gone mad is more dangerous than vice.

            God created the Church and the prot heretics merely spread a different flavor of gnosticism to pagans. Places where the Church has already been, and you seek to do your dark master’s work. All you are supporting is a novelty-based, man-centered eschaton and government religion.

            you may join your friends in eternity if you like, but you won’t enjoy it.

          • Cody

            You don’t even know what the church is.

          • It is the Mystical Body of Christ, the Bride of Christ, and the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church.

          • Cody

            Wrong once again.

          • Well I wouldn’t say the average Catholic learns much about the Church Fathers but a learned Catholic will take it up himself. I don’t recall learning about them growing up. However, we have a sense of continuity through history. From Jesus to toady is a continuity through the Catholic Church. We hear their names mentioned. I remember as a child sitting at Mass how this had been going on for two thousand years. Protestant perception seems to be that the Church started in 1500 with Martin Luther.

            As it turns out I’m reading the church fathers now and having read one of the earliest documents Clement’s Letter to the Corinthians, which is dated around 96 AD, I find it remarkable how that letter sounds like a papal document of today. Now keep in mind that letter was written when St. John the Evangelist was still alive. He is supposed to have died in 100 AD.

            As a famous Protestant convert to the Catholic Church, John Henry Newman, once said, “to be steeped in history is to stop being Protestant. If you read the early Christian documents, you realize just how “Catholic” the early was. But let me also put in a good word for the Orthodox, the Coptic, and some of the other eastern churches. They too have this sense of continuity. These are considered the “Apostolic Churches” because they derived from the very beginning. And if you look at their theology and practices you see a head of the church called a Papa or Pope or Patriarch, which are all synonyms, you see the true presence in the Eucharist, the veneration of saints and the Blessed Mother, and they all give the Holy Virgin the title Theotokos, or Mother of God. I don’t care that Protestants have a different theology, but they have to realize they deviated from what was there in the first century.

            I need to learn more about the Pentecostals. We have a movement within the Catholic Church that is supposed to be similar, the Charismatics. I don’t know much about it either except I have a friend who participates in their gatherings. I’ve enjoyed this discussion. Peace my friend.

      • No, the Church knows who prots are, and have since the beginning.

  • Steve

    This battle is well known as the naval battle of Lepanto.

  • I care about the Truth.

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